The National Centre for Space Studies (CNES) is the French government space agency similar to NASA, JAXA, and DLR. It is headquartered in Paris and is supervised by the French Ministries of Defence(sic) and Research.  CNES primarily does work out of the Toulouse Space Center (Toulouse, France) and Guiana Space Centre (French Guiana). CNES is member of the Institute of Space and CCSDS. CNES has the second largest national budget of all the world’s civilian space programs.