The Netherlands Organization (TNO)
The Netherlands Organization (TNO), also the Netherlands Organization for Applied Scientific Research, is an independent, non-government-funded non-profit applied science research organization based in the Netherlands. TNO was founded in the 1930s and conducts both contract and in-house research projects.
TNO’s project architecture is divided into application fields and then further into specific applications. The following is a list of some FSO, RF, and Satcom specific projects which TNO has worked on.
- Imaging spectrometers launched as satellites for Earth and space viewing 
- Specifically, TROPOMI for understanding climate and air pollution research 
- A telescope using a laser beam as an artificial guide star to direct its imaging plane 
- Design for adaptive optics (both deforming mirrors and precision actuators)  
- Utilizing FSO to facilitate downlink operations between satellites and the ground, airplanes, and satellites, and airplanes and the ground 
- Actively-steered electronic array antennas for RF to support continuous steering of multiple beams 
- Freeform optics for space and beam steering applications 
- Quantum radar