Metamaterials are man-made materials that are designed to have electromagnetic properties that are not seen in nature. Unlike common compound materials such as water or organic compounds which get their electromagnetic properties from their atomic arrangement, Metamaterials get their electromagnetic properties from the geometric structure in which they are organized .
Metamaterials are important for the technology of the 21st century because different geometric patterns and spacing within the structure allow them to be used for different purposes such as: having negative refractive indices, specific bandwidth interactions, chiral interactions, and much more.
Furthermore, photonic metamaterials are created to have electromagnetic properties that interact with light in the infrared (IR) and visible wavelengths. This interaction is produced by having the geometric structure of the metamaterial be smaller than the wavelength of the incoming light but larger than atomic lengths. This allows engineers and researchers to reach the terahertz and 5G regime .