The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA)
The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) is an agency of the United States Department of Defense responsible for the development of emerging technologies for use by the military. Originally known as the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA), the agency was created in February 1958 by President Dwight D. Eisenhower in response to the Soviet launching of Sputnik 1 in 1957. By collaborating with academic, industry, and government partners, DARPA formulates and executes research and development projects to expand the frontiers of technology and science, often beyond immediate U.S. military requirements.
DARPA-funded projects have provided significant technologies that influenced many non-military fields, such as computer networking and the basis for the modern Internet, and graphical user interfaces in information technology. DARPA is independent of other military research and development and reports directly to the Department of Defense senior management. DARPA has about 220 employees, of whom approximately 100 are in management. The name of the organization first changed from its founding name ARPA to DARPA in March 1972, briefly changing back to ARPA in February 1993, only to revert to DARPA in March 1996. 
DARPA has begun an initiative to build a military LEO constellation. The project known as Blackjack launched last year with the goal to develop a LEO constellation that will operate in conjunction with commercial LEO networks to provide global persistent coverage for military operations.